Mendelian Genetics

Unit 14

This question requires you to interpret the graph and to understand that Hb saturation is related to the animal’s size. The sigmoid shape shows that atoms 2 and 3 are lost more easily than 1 and 2.

Stepwise Ionic Bonding

The Lungs

The Heart

Rate Law and Orders of Reaction

  1. The order of a reaction determines how much faster the reaction will go if the concentration of reactant is increased
  2. Rate = K[CO2]n

Kinetics

Avian Respiratory System

This is another easy one, all the clues are in the question, though some understanding of lung function is necessary.

Allograpt, Autograft and Xenograft

This question is about skin grafting.

  1. Allograft = skin grapt between two mewmbers of a species.
  2. Autograft = skin graft from one individual to the same individual.
  3. Xenograft = skin graft between different species

The xenograft is rejected.

Paper Chromatography

This is a simple graph question. The trick is to realise that solvents T and S move in the direction of the arrows rather than indicating labels for the axes. This is apparent from the question if you read carefully!

Glucose in Urine

The body actively tries to hold on to glucose provided it does not exceed a certain concentration in the blood. Glucose is a useful molecule. The graph shows how, up to a certain concentration, all glucose is returned to the blood.

Bell Jar Lung Model

This question requires a basic understanding of lung/chest/diaphragm anatomy.

Chiral Carbon

A Chiral Carbon is one which does not exhibit symmetry. For more information and a test see:

http://www2.vuw.ac.nz/staff/paul_teesdale-spittle/organic/chiral_web/main.htm

Effects of Temperature on Equilibrium

  1. If temperature increases the reaction will shift in the endothermic direction (taking in heat).
  2. If temperature decreases the reaction will shift in the exothermic direction.

Heterogeneous Equilibrium

The Equilibrium Constant & Expression

The equilibrium expression is a ratio between the product and the reactant.

eg. for H2 + I2 <=> 2HI

The Equilibrium expression represents tre final ratio between the two:

[HI]2 / [H2][I2]

What is Equilibrium

  1. Reactions move in both directions.
  2. Equilibrium is the point at which the rate of forward reaction is equal to the rate of reverse reaction.

Fischer and Haworth Projections

Note the following molecular diagrams are NOT equivalent.

Fischer projections

  1. Generaly represent all the atoms
  2. use lines to represent bonds

eg.

D-glucose_Fischer

see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haworth_projection for more.

Haworth Projections

  1. Visualise the molecule in three dimentions so more commonly used for ring molecules.
  2. Carbon and Hydrogen atoms are assumed and are not drawn

eg

Glucose_Haworth

See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haworth_projection for more detail.

This image is used under the Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 3.0 License.

Naming Simple Organic Compounds

Inverse Square Law

  1. The inverse square law applies to gravity and magnetic charges.
  2. force = sum of charges / distance2